Cândido da Fonseca Galvão, also known as Oba II d’Africa (1845-1890) was a Brazilian man who fought in the War of the Triple Alliance (also called the Paraguayan War) and claimed to be the grandson of an African prince whose son had been brought to Brazil as a slave. Galvão himself was born a free man in Bahia, and enlisted in the military at a time when Black slavery was still legal in what was then the Empire of Brazil.
Galvão was the grandson of the powerful African prince Alafin Abiodun, who unified the Yoruba kingdom of Oyó in the late eighteenth century. Galvão’s father fought in the wars that raged in that region of Africa in the early nineteenth century, was captured in battle, and sold into slavery. He was then transported to Bahia. With the help of friends among the Yoruba community in Salvador, Galvão’s father quickly purchased his freedom. He then married and had children. As an offspring of freedpersons, Cândido Galvão was raised as a free black man near the town of Lençóis in the interior of Bahia.
Dom Obá II considered it his duty to fight for his country in the war against Paraguay. “As the patriotic soldier that I am, I understand that I have only been doing my duty in taking an active part in all the matters that I understand to be grave.” Enlisting as a Voluntário in the all-black Zuavo company that departed from Lençóis on May 1865, Galvão remained at the front until wounded in his right hand in August 1866. After his return to Bahia, where he remained through the decade of the 1870s, Galvão petitioned government officials for recognition of his service during the war and for monetary compensation. His experience in Paraguay inspired his commitment to ending slavery in Brazil and his pride in being a black man.
Galvão settled in Rio de Janeiro in 1880, where he gained renown. The wealthy considered him a “disturbed veteran” (uma espécie de veterano resmungão) and “folkloric aberration” due to his outspokenness and appearance in attire that included a long black morning coat, tall hat, gloves, umbrella, and walking cane. An activist of the first order, Galvão met personally with the Emperor [Pedro II of Brazil] 125 at public meetings from June 1882 to December 1884! Dom Obá garnered great respect among “the Blacks and the Browns” (the terms commonly used by Galvão) residing in the city. Slaves, freedpersons, and free persons of color all provided financial support that enabled the prince to publish articles in newspapers. In his writings, Galvão praised the contributions of black and brown soldiers during the Paraguayan war, condemned the racism he witnessed in Brazil, and called for an end to slavery.
Galvão died in 1890, shortly after the abolition of slavery in Brazil and the establishment of the Brazilian republic. An biography of Galvão, entitled Prince of the People, was published in 1993.
Tua Marina: The Scene of the Wairau Massacre
In New Zealand history, the Wairau Affray (called the Wairau Massacre in older texts), on 17 June 1843, was the first serious clash of arms between Māori and the British settlers after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi and it was also the only one to take place in the South Island. Four Māori died and three were wounded in the incident, and among the British the toll was 22 dead and five wounded.
An armed posse of Europeans set out from Nelson to arrest Te Rauparaha who was a Māori rangatira (chief) and war leader of the Ngāti Toa tribe. He was influential in the original sale of land to the New Zealand Company. Fighting broke out and a number were killed on both sides. Although around 20 of the European party escaped, about 10 others surrendered and were subsequently massacred at the insistence of Te Rangihaeata as utu for the shooting of his wife.
The incident heightened fears among settlers of an armed Māori insurrection and created the first major challenge for Governor Robert FitzRoy, who took up his posting in New Zealand six months later. Although he was strongly criticized by settlers and the New Zealand Company, Governor FitzRoy who arrived in New Zealand in December 1843 investigated the Wairau Affray and exonerated Te Rauparaha and Te Rangihaeata.
Vishnu saving the elephant, Gajendra in ‘Gajendramoksha’.
‘An elephant was caught by an alligator in a Tank and was unable to get out for several years. At last the Elephant called upon Vishnoo to protect him and Vishnoo then came.’
Vishnu touching the kneeling elephant, Gajendra (gajendra-moksha), to restore him to his former state as the Pandya king, Indradyumna.
Copyright: © V&A Images
Kano-engraving 1850 Author: Unknown
First stop when I get that time machine.
c. 1850: Ambrotype of an Ojibwa Man wearing western dress and snow goggles
The cashew nut is a major source of income in eastern and southern Africa which is one reason why the ‘Paisley’ pattern on textiles became immensely popular because of its similarity to the shape of the cashew. From the mid-nineteenth century, printed textiles in eastern and southern Africa, where slavery was not officially abolished until 1897, were increasingly worn as a sign of proud emancipation, freedom and personal prosperity.” From: zeitgeistafrica.com
Gold Overlaid Calligrapher’s Scissors, Ottoman Turkey, 19th century